L3 Games Design: FMP: Research – History of Animation

Animation before film

There were many different types of animation that was used before film. With the spread of the Industrial Revolution in Europe and North America in the 18th and 19th centuries came experimentation with machines that would make images appear to move.


The magic lantern first appeared and the magic lantern is an image projector using pictures on sheets of glass. Since some sheets contain moving parts, it is considered the first example of projected animation.


The Thaumatrope was introduced and it is a rotating mechanism that has different pictures on each side and when rotated you would combine both pictures (known as persistence of vision).


The phenakitoscope featured spinning disks reflected in mirrors that
made it seem like the pictures were moving.


After the phenakitoscope came the Zoetrope. The zoetrope was a hollow drum that housed images on long interchangeable strips that would spin and make the images appear to move.


The flip book was introduced. The flip-book, also known as the kineograph, reached a wide audience and is credited with inspiring early animators more than the machines developed in this era. The flip book is a small drawing pad with small images created on each page and then using your thumb at a rapid pace flicking through each page creating a short animation of all the images.


The praxinoscope expanded on the zoetrope, using multiple wheels to rotate images. It is considered to have shown the first prototypes of the animated cartoon.




The animation of Gertie The Dinosaur was created and this character was to be considered as the first cartoon to feature an appealing character.



Felix The Cat was created by Musical Mews and Feline Follies. Felix the Cat – often considered the first animated movie star. Felix The Cat was created during what is known as the ‘Silent Era’, a period during 1900’s and 1930’s.

Silent era,


‘Steamboat Willie’ an iconic animation still remembered today created by Walt Disney. Featuring Mickey Mouse it becomes the first cartoon with the sound printed on the film, and is the first notable success for Walt Disney Studios, founded in Los Angeles in 1923.



Next came what was known as ‘The Golden Age of American Animation’, this was a period that started in 1930 and finished during the 1950’s. During what many consider to be the “Golden Age” of animation, theatrical cartoons became an integral part of popular culture. These years are defined by the rise of Walt Disney (Mickey Mouse, Donald Duck, and Silly Symphonies), Warner Brothers, MGM, and Fleischer (Betty Boop, Popeye).



Snow White was created by Walt Disney and it was the first animation to feature hand drawn animation. When creating the seven dwarfs it took up to almost two years to come up with the final rendering for all seven dwarfs, using 1.5 million cells throughout the animation.



Became know as the American Television Era and one of the first animated television shows was the Flintstones, Hanna-Barbera releases The Flintstones in 1960, the first animated series on prime-time television.



The introduction of yogi bear, The Yogi Bear Show, a spin-off of Huckleberry Hound
(another Hanna-Barbera production), debuts on national TV.


Best Short Film



DePatie-Freleng Enterprises wins the Academy Award for Best Short Film
for The PinkPhink (of the Pink Panther series) and continues to
create shorts for theatrical release.



Fritz the Cat is released—the first animated
adult (X-rated) feature film.

1980 – 2014


The CGI (computer generated imagery) revolutionized animation. A principal difference of CGI animation compared to traditional animation is that drawing is replaced by 3D modeling, almost like a virtual version of stop-motion. A form of animation that combines the two and uses 2D computer drawing can be considered computer aided animation.



This short film was the first fully CGI-animated film,
created by The Graphics Group, the precursor to Pixar.



The Simpsons is an American adult animated sitcom created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company. It is the longest-running American sitcom, the longest-running American animated program, and in 2009 it surpassed Gunsmoke as the longest-running American scripted primetime television series. Longest running american animated program.



Toy Story, the first fully computer-animated
feature film, was released. Taking place in a world where toys pretend to be lifeless whenever humans are present, the film’s plot focuses on the relationship between Woody, an old-fashioned Cowboy (voiced by Tom Hanks), and Buzz Lightyear, an astronaut figure (voiced by Tim Allen)

Film poster showing Woody anxiously holding onto Buzz Lightyear as he flies in Andy's room. Below them sitting on the bed are Bo Peep, Mr. Potato Head, Troll, Hamm, Slinky, Sarge and Rex. In the lower right center of the image is the film's title. The background shows the cloud wallpaper featured in the bedroom.



Big Hero 6 is the first Disney animated film
to feature Marvel Comics characters.

Image result for big hero six


L3 Games Design: The History of VR/AR Game

Virtual Reality or VR first dominated the scene in 2015/2016. First came the Oculus VR and this already had a foot in the gaming industry before Facebook took over the company for $2 billion, and then Sony came up with their own idea of 3D experiences by creating a project called Morpheus. Morpheus is a headset that immerses gamers into different elements of 3D experiences.

Before VR first started to dominate in 2015/2016, Sega’s Master System 3D glasses first appeared in the 80s, the Master System was a flickering headset that re-created the effect of 3D in a private setting. Although it is compared to today’s 3D standards, it created a unique effect across different 3D games, including the like of Space Harrier, Maze Hunter. Zaxxon 3D and Missile Defense.

At first, the headset didn’t sell as well as Sega had hoped, but the 3D trend came back when Sony introduced a more casual style with certain PlayStation 3 games, including Killzone 3, Sly Cooper: Thieves In Time and the Ico/Shadow of the Colossus Collection.

In 1995, Nintendo decided to give virtual gaming a try with its 3D red-and-black based headset, the Virtual Boy. After finding success in a rental campaign during the summer, the company launched it at retail for around $180. Several 3D games were introduced, including Teleroboxer, Red Alert and Mario’s Tennis, a brand that jumped to other consoles after its VR debut. It also introduced fans to the Wario Land series, which continues its success on the Virtual Console.

Not everyone was a big fan on the Virtual Boy, people found the feeling very queasy from the experience. The Virtual Boy introduced some good ideas before Nintendo discontinued it the following year. The aspect of 3D gaming would stick with the company, eventually returning with the release of the 3DS in 2011.

Virtual reality re-entered the gaming industry again when a company called Oculus VR developed a headset called the Oculus Rift. The device first got its start through a successful campaign, and soon after, Oculus began showing off the tech at trade events, where it was well received.

The Oculus rift has a very good amount of popular games that entices people entertain themselves with the Oculus rift game library, this is because it utilizes both original games and popular hits. Games such as Doom 3, Mirror’s Edge and Hawken were adapted to take advantage of the headset, and savvy developers created everything from an 8-bit Legend of Zelda game to the horror adventure Dreadhalls.

More importantly, it now has support. Facebook paid $2 billion for Oculus and its high-tech Rift gear, but it intends to let the company run on its own, meaning the the headset is still on tap for a consumer release a few months down the line. Still, with financial backing now in its corner and increased accessibility, Oculus now have the ability to find the audience they need and they want to make virtual reality very popular again.


L3 Games Design – 3D Animation – Pixar Short film

The first shorts were made while Pixar was still a computer hardware company, and were used to sell the companies hardware products. The story of Pixar’s early short films illuminates not only the evolution of the company but also the early days of computer animation, when a small group of artists and scientists shared a single computer in a hallway, and struggled to create emotionally compelling short films.


The first Pixar Short, The Adventures of André and Wally B (1984). Created as a technical demonstration to to sell Pixar’s hardware.

Pixar uses all different types of technology in their productions. Their most prominent use of technology in the production is computers of their films. When creating a production, Pixar are able to run a software on the computers, which allows them to design different concepts, different storyboards and different types of modelling. Pixar can use all different types of softwares to produce animation in their films.

Pixar also relies on powerful and specially designed computers to use for the process of rendering.

From when Pixar was first created as a hardware developer, the company’s technology has had a massive development throughout the years with the development of the computer graphics industry. Its early short films, like Luxo Jr, and its debut industry standard software for rendering, the process of generating finished two-dimensional images from the geometry, surfacing and lighting data used to create a three-dimensional animation.



When creating a production, Pixar use digital lighting to brighten up the scene and to make it clear what is happening in the animation. Every time Pixar create an animation they use the digital lighting to make it look stage lighting has been used or to make it very similar to stage lighting. Key, fill and bounce lights and room ambience are all defined and used to enhance the mood and emotion of each scene. Lighting takes its inspiration from the colour scripts created by the art department. Animators , use ambient, omnidirectional and spotlights to create depth, shadows and moods.
Rendering is the act of gathering all individual clips or files to create one final product, this will include; sets, colour and character movements. Pixar have what they call a ‘RenderMan’ which is there software that gathers all individual pixels of every image from the model, animation, shading and lighting.
Using powerful computers, all of the digital information that the animators have created is assembled into a single frame of film. For Pixar to fully render an animation it could take an average of six hours to render one frame of an animated film.  Pixar animated films are produced at a frame rate of 24 frames per second (fps). For a 90 minute film, that’s nearly 130,000 frames of animation. At Pixar an individual animator is expected to produce 100 frames of animation a week.

L3 Games Design: Task 1 – 2d Platform Games

Super Mario Bros.2 is a 2D side scrolling platform game that was released in Japan as Super Mario USA in 1988, the game was developed and published by Nintendo. The objective of the game is to play as one of four characters; Mario, Luigi, Toad and Princess Peach and to complete each level of the dream world Subcon and to defeat the main antagonist Wart. All characters are able to run, jump and climb obstacles within the game, but each character has there own unique power. Luigi can jump the highest out of the four characters, Princess Peach can jump the farthest, Toad’s strength allows him to pick up items quickly. Some of the abilities in this game were carried over to Super Mario 3d World which was designed for the Wii U. As opposed to the original Super Mario Bros, you could only moved left or right, vertically down in waterfalls, cloud and cave levels.

Compared to other Mario games, Super Mario Bros.2, the only way to defeat enemies was to collect pick ups and throw objects at the enemies, you were not allowed to jump on the enemies neither ride the enemies. Some of the objects included vegetables from the ground or from other enemies that you have already defeated.

Super Mario Bros.2 consisted of 20 different levels across seven different worlds. Each world would have there own different elements to it and each would have a different theme to it. Depending on what theme the level would be determines what the obstacles and enemies you would encounter in that particular level. For example, levels such as the desert would have certain dangerous areas such as quicksand and on the other hand, snowy areas would have slippery surfaces. Each level has there own ways of completing it and some would contain different rooms which you could enter via a door or ladder. Some rooms would contain magic potions found in each level which are used to temporarily access different parts of the level, an area where you could collect mushrooms and coins that would boost and maximum your health. Furthermore, there would also be certain jars, which can make you move to the later world or skip certain levels. Other items include cherries, which are collected and to be used to quickly destroy all the enemies visible on the screen.

Super Mario Bros.2 starts with three lives, which can be lost upon getting hit by enemies, hazard damage or the character falls of the screen. To gain extra lives the character can collect floating hearts that appear when defeating a certain number of enemies. Once all those lives have gone then you have failed that level and game over will appear on your screen. Although the player can continue up to two times in one game, additional lives can be obtained by collecting 1-up mushrooms or by using coins that you have collected.

L3 Games Design: Task 1 – FIFA 17 The Journey

Within FIFA 17 there are numerous games modes that you are able to play whether that is multiplayer or playing by yourself, on FIFA 17 the games modes that you are able to play online are Ultimate team, co-op seasons and pro clubs, all different variations whether that is playing as a team online or you playing against another person from around the world. The single player games modes that are on FIFA 17 are; the journey, a new game mode to FIFA and this is controlling one player and seeing what it is like from starting from the academy of a football club and making your way up to be the best player in the world. Also, you have career mode, which is managing a team and using your finances to buy the players you want and building the best team to win the league that you are in.

Strategy: The strategy on FIFA 17 The Journey is to complete objectives to impress your manager to be able to play in the football team. You start of as a young boy who loves football and gets spotted by a scout, who then sends you to football trials when you are a bit older, after that you then get to chose what club you want to play for, but to get into the first team you must impress the coach in training.

Information set: The information that you will get whilst playing this game is that before every game you will get certain objectives you must complete within the match, for example, you must score two goals before the match ends. On the other hand you can get scenarios in the game where you must decide between three options, keeping your cool, keeping your opinion balanced or making your response fiery. The way you respond in them scenarios determines the outcome of that particular scene.

Payoff: The payoff that you can get from completing the objectives that are handed to you is that you could be living the lifestyle that you always want, living in the big houses, earning big money,being a well-known player and being the best in the world at what you do.


Task 2: Research – Intellectual property

These definitions have been quoted from the website of ‘World Intellectual Property Organisation’ and there definition for copyright is: ‘Copyright (or author’s right) is a legal term used to describe the rights that creators have over their literary and artistic works. Works covered by copyright range from books, music, paintings, sculpture, and films, to computer programs, databases, advertisements, maps, and technical drawings.’

Their definition for trademarks is: ‘A trademark is a sign capable of distinguishing the goods or services of one enterprise from those of other enterprises. Trademarks are protected by intellectual property rights.’

Finally there definition for industrial designs is: ‘In a legal sense, an industrial design constitutes the ornamental or aesthetic aspect of an article. An industrial design may consist of three dimensional features, such as the shape of an article, or two dimensional features, such as patterns, lines or colour.’

When a company is creating a game, for example EA Sports when creating Fifa, there will be a chance that they would buy the rights to use the football teams and their colours. For EA Sports and Fifa there main rival for football would be the company Konami with them creating the game Pro Evolution Soccer. In the game Fifa every team will have the correct logo, team name and the correct kits and this is because EA Sports have bought the rights to have them in their game, whereas in the game Pro Evolution Soccer not all the teams have the correct name, logo and kit and this is because Konami haven’t bought the rights to have them. Each game will have there own certain feature in the game that they themselves have created and they would of probably got copyright on that just so no other company could copy them and have similar style games and by having your own certain features and the rights to use the correct teams it is most likely that that game will be more popular than the other.


Games Soundtrack

Screen Shot 2015-12-03 at 10.07.29

This particular sound track in this game is very good. This is because it builds a lot of tension for the game; the music starts off very slow and then slowly builds up the music for then the soundtrack to then get really loud and fast creating a good feel for the game. This also does have a little bit of commentary in the background from the pit team, which comes in a certain times of the track. The feeling you get from this track is that quite exciting and it gives the gamer that bit more excitement when playing the game.

A lot of the music for this game does start of very slow building a very fast and energetic. This does create a great feel for the game when playing it. The music does changing depending on what mission you are on because if you are the racer the music change to a fast pace soundtrack. This will create a better atmosphere for the game because it make the gamer feel very excited to play the game, giving them a feel of driving an actual car.

When they were creating the soundtracks for this game they had the idea to involve a lot of the sounds from different parts of the cars. This makes the game feel very real for the person who is playing it. This is because when your hearing all different sounds from different types of cars and it is what your interested in, it can give you that feel for the car and for the game.

Screen Shot 2015-12-17 at 09.47.07

Within the game GTA 5 or Grand Theft Auto IV there is always a soundtrack in the background of the missions, these soundtracks are used to build tension in the game. When playing the game if you are coming to a very big part of the mission or a part of the mission where you are having to act very suspiciously the music will start to become very fast and upbeat creating excitement for the mission. This is normally used to create suspense for the game, so the gamer is kept waiting to see what it all builds up to.

The background music in this game may not play in every mission because it may not need it, it’s only used for the more suspicious parts of the game, like the main parts of each mission. When the music is playing in the mission it will play throughout the whole of the mission but that will just be the more relaxing part of the soundtrack, but like I said before when it’s the main part of the mission the soundtrack will get more intense within the game to create a different atmosphere for the game and a different atmosphere for the person playing the game.

The game soundtrack does determine what mission the gamer is doing and what type of mission it is. For example, if the mission is about sneaking around a building without being court then it will play music with a very sneaky and slow soundtrack, whereas if the gamer is on a mission where he is in a gun fight or racing another person then the music will be fast and loud.